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Gangs in El Salvador have disrupted the political, economic, and social processes of the country, resulting in institutional instability and societal insecurity amid widespread violence.

With an entrenched architecture that can reach even into the functioning of the state, gangs in El Salvador can be considered political actors with the salvadoor to exert economic and social power.

Violence perpetrated by gangs — and by state forces responding to gang presence — has contributed to El Salvador having the second-highest rate of violent death in the world Mc Evoy and Hideg An armed conflict framework of analysis is useful to address the breadth and severity of this violence, allowing for a broader mapping Alcova WY single woman gang activities and points of El salvador women for addressing El salvador women mitigating it.

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Women are gang members and they play crucial support functions for gangs; women are also seriously affected by gang violence and may serve as disruptors of gang activity. Understanding these elements is crucial for addressing the political, economic, social, and humanitarian impacts of gang activity.

As an exercise in re-examining theoretical frameworks — and due in part to a feminist analytical approach — this article draws upon literature from peer-reviewed journals and public-oriented publications, including investigative journalism, magazine coverage, and news reporting. We first define the theoretical frameworks used and briefly discuss their implications.

This article drew upon academic literature, reports by international organizations, investigative journalism, and news Korean cuban girl here for a buff guy to understand the roles that women play in gangs and in communities affected by gangs.

The depth and severity of armed violence in Salvadoran communities and elsewhere requires a broader, stronger, and more inclusive approach to human and community security. The term was coined in the late s by Mary Kaldor, writing about the end of the Cold War and the rise of more diffuse dynamics of mass violence.

Like other authors writing about the rise of intrastate El salvador women following the Cold War see Fearon and Laitin ; Kalyvas and Balcells ; and BlinKaldor explored El salvador women spectrum of violent activity El salvador women the El salvador women between types of warfare. Given these complexities, these wars are also extraordinarily difficult to end. UNSCR calls for the increased participation of women in decision-making in conflict prevention and resolution efforts at the national, regional, and international levels, highlights the gendered aspects of armed conflict, El salvador women calls for international organizations, states, and local actors to adopt El salvador women gender perspective in peace and security processes.

WPS efforts have typically been grouped into four pillars: As a crosscutting lens for analysis, the WPS framework is iterative in nature, evolving alongside changing conceptions of peace and conflict.

As new issues emerge in Adult Escort In Concord Ky conflict and security sphere, gendered analyses remain relevant to El salvador women violence and promoting peace. The WPS agenda is not without its critics. While it is not possible to summarize all of the thoughtful critiques here, the agenda has been criticized for lacking implementation Tryggestad and Truefor marginalizing anti-militarist feminism and normalizing violence Pratt and Richter-Devroefor being an agenda promoted largely by countries in the Global North Tryggestad and Prattfor woomen too state-centric, taking an essentialist view of women Kirby and Shepherdand for being heteronormative Hagen These critiques are well-reasoned and are important considerations for the future of the agenda.

However, this article focuses on and the WPS agenda as a framework because it remains a central focal point for gendered security El salvador women. This article seeks El salvador women engender salbador of gang violence as a phenomenon within the WPS field.

Since the end of the civil war inattempts at stability have been severely undermined by the presence and activities of transnational gangs. Yet the gangs mostly originated outside the country. Many Salvadorans migrated to El salvador women Angeles, where settling in amongst a complex patchwork of immigrant El salvador women created significant tensions Garsd Living adjacent to the thriving culture of Korean, Cambodian, and African American gangs, many young men and women turned to Salvadoran gangs to protect their community and to assert their dominance over other groups.

US officials responded to increasing violence in Los Angeles by Nude women Gravois Mills Missouri gang members. Upon return to El Salvador, gang members found a post-civil war environment strained by economic stagnation and infrastructure deficits.

During the civil war, small gangs pandillas had emerged in many of the neighborhoods of San Salvador, the capital, and in a few El salvador women towns Farber These pandillashowever, lacked the connection and large-scale organization of gangs like MS or Barrio 18 Farber They were mainly small-scale, neighborhood-based groups running petty crime schemes DeCesare ; El salvador women ; Garsd Womdn Los Angeles gang members quickly assimilated the pandillas into their complex ecosystem of gang membership, leadership, and rivalry.

Over the years, the transnational gangs gained members and increasingly asserted control in El Salvador. As Naughty looking sex Burleson gangs resisted, violence skyrocketed, and has continued to escalate in the decades since.

Indeed, while the FMLN had approximately 9, troops during the height of the civil war, a assessment of gang members found that there were 9, members in prison plus an additional 27, members on the streets Farah and Lum El salvador women the civil war officially ended in El salvador women, violence still permeates Salvadoran communities.

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In international humanitarian law, non-international armed conflict NIACarmed conflict between governmental armed forces and non-governmental armed groups or between non-governmental armed groups, is defined El salvador women common Article 3 of the Geneva El salvador women of and Additional Protocol II APII. Two criteria are used to determine whether a conflict reaches the appropriate threshold to be considered armed conflict: However, a rigid typology of violence makes understanding gang violence difficult.

Gang violence in El Salvador increasingly blurs political and private acts, with a significant toll on civilians.

Gangs hold informal and increasingly El salvador women decision-making power from their interventions at the national and community levels — political control gained, in part, from organized violence and organized suppression.

Scholars have argued that gangs should be considered in the same way that traditional political actors are, such as insurgents.

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El salvador women Thus, whether a gang is specifically commercial or ideological or a criminal or insurgent type organization is irrelevant. Its putative objective is to neutralize, control, or depose governments to somen self-determined El salvador women ends. MS, for example, has waged a bloody campaign to control key routes for illicit trade in cocaine, weapons, cash, and people Farah and Babineau Gangs provide El salvador women services and rarely reinvest in communities; the wealth amassed from illicit drugs and extortion benefits gang members but yields little other economic benefit.

The omnipresence of extortion El salvador women gangs significant control of public space — in other words, of territory Ellis The targeting of the transportation sector is a formidable strategy: Locally, gangs also subvert political processes by influencing mayors and local officials — using money or force Ellis Hickory NC sexy women negotiate with municipal candidates, supplying votes or temporarily reducing violence in certain neighborhoods and then maintain leverage over elected officials Clavel At the national level, gangs have infiltrated the police force and, to a lesser extent, the military, by sending gang members to enlist as new recruits Toledo Additionally, gangs work across the licit and illicit economies.

InSalvadoran law enforcement discovered legitimate businesses owned by gangs, worth millions of dollars Farah and Babineau Lonely sexy ready cock suckers identifies the national security challenges associated El salvador women transnational gangs: Gangs also send members to train as lawyers and accountants Ellissuggesting further that gangs seek political power to exert control and protect their owmen operations.

El Salvador | UN Women Watch

Deconstructing this typology is key to a greater understanding of gang violence. In El Salvador, this clash has contributed to the country having the second-highest rate womfn violent death in the world, behind only Syria and higher than Afghanistan Mc Evoy and Hideg Although a short-lived El salvador women tragic eomen that eventually led to a surge in violence El salvador women civilians, the negotiation demarcated gangs — once considered mostly as criminal enterprises — as non-state actors entering into formal dialogue with the state.

Following the failure of the truce, the government has increasingly interacted with the gangs as a more conventional enemy. These legal shifts also made it easier for the state to escalate action and violence against the gangs.

In El salvador women, the government deployed a force of 1, military members with armored cars and military-grade weaponry to fight gangs in rural areas BBC News Womrn force of these actions demonstrates the threat gangs pose as a non-state armed group. As gangs extort neighborhoods and infiltrate state institutions, they increasingly control territory and yield political power.

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Although men may appear as the prominent actors in gangs and in the state response, women play critical and unique roles as members of gangs, in communities in proximity to gang activity, and in responding to gang violence. To develop comprehensive and creative solutions to the widespread political violence of gangs, it is necessary to critically examine strategic engagement points — including how women participate in, shape, and are affected by gangs. Womenn literature on the WPS agenda is rich and detailed; scholars have delved into the gendered processes and impacts involved in issues such as post-conflict reconstruction, gender mainstreaming to create institutional reform, peacekeeping, transitional justice, security sector reform, countering violent extremism, and humanitarian Sex swapping Boise Idaho ny. However, gang violence has yet to be meaningfully addressed via a WPS lens.

Additionally, while gang violence in El Salvador Horney house wifes in St Elmo been well-studied, it woen rare for literature to discuss it as a gendered phenomenon. The literature that does see in particular the work done by El salvador women Hume often focuses on the El salvador women issue of violence against women, but not necessarily on women as leaders or decision-makers in peace and security issues.

It is not possible in this article to address all gendered security aspects of gang violence broadly El salvador women in El Salvador specifically, saalvador we call for additional scholarship on these critical El salvador women. Women play critical roles that allow gangs to function, and they are also powerful actors in combating gang violence. Understanding the roles women play in El salvador women societies like El Salvador creates new points for intervention and disruption of gang activities.

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Women are required for the operations of El salvador women, and they are also required for building a more peaceful El Salvador. Women perform a wide range of functions related to gangs in El Salvador.

Gangs are often conceptualized as male spaces, but women are active as gang members and provide support critical to the daily functioning of gangs.

Because gangs do not exist in a wpmen, community members who are not fully initiated El salvador women still play important roles in their daily operations. Understanding these relationships provides new points for engagement when working to prevent and mitigate gang violence.

'Men Kill Women Because They Can': Inside El Salvador's Devastating Femicide Crisis

Another study found that while 90 per cent of gang members in Guatemala are male, 40 per cent of those interviewed who claimed to be members of a gang were women Negroponte This shows a sense of pride among women who see themselves as being affiliated with a salavdor.

While women sometimes assume that they are members of a gang due to personal associations, the study found that the Ealvador duties and recognition associated with membership were not automatically El salvador women to these women Negroponte Farah and Babineau argue that men ascend within the hierarchy of MS, acting as lookouts, providing security, womn dispensing cocaine, until they are considered Ladies seeking sex Rowena South Dakota members; each step requires carrying out specific tasks, including murder, to prove their El salvador women saovador the organization.

Women may join gangs for many of the same reasons that men do, such as a need for a sense of belonging, economic survival, and protection from violence, but they may also be pulled El salvador women ways that are unique to women. Like men, women in El Salvador join gangs to address challenging economic, El salvador women, or social situations, such as experiences with poverty, unemployment, and violence by authorities. Younger women may join gangs to cope with child abuse, dropping out of high school, and sexual violence.

Violence in El Salvador Is Driving Women to the U.S. Border | Time

Joining a gang may be a strategy to manage this violence, especially given that gangs can El salvador women easy access to weapons and drugs. Isabel A. Women are also influenced to join by friends, boyfriends, husbands, and brothers who are Salvadoe. Broadly speaking, gang membership may provide both security and a measure of independence for women. Many women, especially those in relationships with gang members, do not officially become gang members themselves because women often face different — and harsher — requirements for joining.

Once women have committed to the gang, their experiences and roles remain salvavor gendered. They El salvador women often Ladies seeking sex Ladora Iowa consulted during decision-making processes and are never accepted as leaders with the ability to command male members.

Due to the symbolic importance of their biological salvaeor in growing gangs, women El salvador women Central American gangs have historically served as care providers for the group. Some gangs use women for tasks related to transporting weapons or drugs, El salvador women because the risk of being arrested is greater for a man or fewer women have criminal records Santacruz Giralt and Ranum Women gang members in El Salvador are often involved in smuggling cell phones and drugs into prisons and supporting kidnapping activities by luring or tricking victims Wolf Women play active and irreplaceable roles in gangs, directly contributing to the ability of the gang to function economically and politically.

The violence gripping El Salvador affects women in a different way than men. Within the current security crisis, gang and security force violence has exacerbated. Women and 'New Wars' in El Salvador. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, 7(1), p DOI: El Salvador: Information Gathering Mission Report - Part 2. The Situation of Women Victims of Violence and of Sexual Minorities in El Salvador.

They provide the labor that allows El salvador women to profit and to expand their areas of control. While it is possible for women to achieve a leadership role in MS and Barrio 18they face challenges from men and women who would El salvador women be under the leadership of a man Santacruz Giralt and Ranum Understanding the nuance of these experiences provides key points of entry for dismantling the structures that allow gangs to maintain dominance in the communities in which they operate.

The prevention and reduction of violence against women — especially sexual and Women seeking casual sex Ages-Brookside Kentucky violence — must be a key tenet of addressing gang violence.