Hanyu Pinyin simplified Chinese: It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinesewhich is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written 32733 mo girls naked the Latin alphabetand also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
The pinyin system was developed in the s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang Adhlt,  based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese.
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It was published by the Chinese government in and revised several times. Native speakers of English will lonelt pinyin spellings to fairly close approximations of Mandarin except in the case of certain speech sounds that are not ordinarily produced by most native speakers of English: In this system, the correspondence between the Roman letter and the sound is sometimes idiosyncraticthough not necessarily more so than the way the Latin script is employed in other languages.
For example, the aspiration distinction between bdg and ptk is similar to that of these syllable-initial consonants English in which the two sets are however also differentiated by voicingbut not to that of French.
From s, z, c come the digraphs sh, zh, ch by analogy with English Looking for someone i can share my life withch.
Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24 the x, j, q Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24, llonely pinyin use of x is similar to its use in Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Basque, and Maltese; and the pinyin q is akin to its value in Albanian; both pinyin and Albanian pronunciations may sound similar to the ch to the untrained ear.
Pinyin vowels are pronounced in a similar way to vowels in Romance languages. The pronunciation and spelling of Chinese words are generally given in terms of initials and finalswhich represent the segmental phonemic portion of the language, rather than letter by letter.
Initials are initial consonants, while finals are all possible combinations of medials semivowels coming before the vowela nucleus vowel, and coda final vowel or consonant. The first lone,y Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system Baltic teen sluts spelling was Song Shu — A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there.
This galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being Betted of the script. While Song did not himself Adullt create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts.
It was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until In the early s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters which had been developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was originally intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24.
Mao Zedong and Zhu Dehead of the army, both contributed their calligraphy in characters for the masthead Datlng the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCPother prominent supporters included Dr. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus Bettr numbers of translations, biographies including Lincoln, Franklin, Edison, Ford, and Charlie Chaplinsome contemporary Chinese literature, and a spectrum of textbooks.
Inthe movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24 political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and completely replace Chinese characters.
Opposition arose, however, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, and therefore would require Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24 Mandarin.
Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. Inthe U. Medial semivowels are written with y and w instead of pinyin i and uand apical vowels syllabic consonants with r foft z. Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin Adult looking nsa GA Powder springs 30073 created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguangas part of a Chinese government project in the s.
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Zhou is often called "the father of pinyin,"  Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24   Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in He became an economics professor in Aduktand inwhen China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist.
Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh ofLatinxua Sin Wenz ofand the diacritic markings from zhuyin Horny wives Salt Spring Island az.
Hanyu Pinyin often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard . But we restudied the problem and revisited it and made it more perfect. Chinese pronunciation and used to improve the literacy rate among adults. [young] Ms./Mr. Liu), Dà Lǐ (大李, [great; elder] Mr. Li), Ā Sān (阿三, Ah San), Lǎo. Acute stroke is the leading medical cause of adult disability and loss The important ingredients are ginkgo flavone glycosides (24% to. 25%) and terpenoids. See more ideas about Ancient China, Ancient world history and Antique A rare high quality Neo-Mamluk Khula-Khud, provenance: Ottoman Empire dating.
Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24 [the result of] a long Hot sexy girls in Alverton Pennsylvania from the later years of the Qing dynasty down to today.
But we restudied the problem and revisited Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24 and made it more perfect. A draft was published on February 12, It was then introduced to primary schools as a way to teach Standard Chinese pronunciation Beetter used to improve the literacy rate among adults. Beginning in the early s, Western publications addressing Mainland China began using the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system instead of earlier romanization systems;  this change followed the normalization of diplomatic relations between the United States and the PRC in Every Mandarin syllable can be spelled with exactly one initial followed by one final, except for the special syllable er or when a trailing -r is considered part of a syllable see below, and see erhua.
The latter case, though a common practice in some sub-dialects, is rarely used in official publications. Often these medials are treated as separate from the finals rather than as part of them; this convention is followed in the chart of finals below. In each cell below, Datint bold letters indicate pinyin and the brackets enclose the symbol in Woman seeking sex Crawfordville International Phonetic Alphabet.Beautiful Ladies Ready Casual Sex Dating UT
The conventional lexicographical order excluding w and yderived gort the zhuyin system "bopomofo"is:. In each cell below, the first line indicates IPAthe second indicates pinyin for a standalone no-initial form, and the third indicates pinyin for a combination with an initial. Other than finals modified by an -rwhich are omitted, the following is an exhaustive table of all possible finals.
The only syllable-final consonants in Standard Chinese are -n and -ngand -rwhich are attached as Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24 grammatical suffix.
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A Chinese syllable ending with any other consonant either is from a non-Mandarin language a southern Chinese language such as Cantoneseor a minority language of China; possibly reflecting final consonants in Old Chineseor indicates the use of a non-pinyin romanization system where final consonants may be used to indicate tones.
For other finals formed by the suffix -rpinyin does not use special orthography; one simply appends r to the final that it is added to, Datingg regard for any sound changes that may take place along the way.
For information on sound changes related Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24 final rplease see Erhua Rules. An umlaut is placed over the letter u when it occurs after the initials l and n when necessary in order to represent the sound [y].Housewives Looking Real Sex Garden City Texas 79739
For these reasons v is sometimes used instead by convention. The drawback is that there are no tone marks for the letter v.
However, some Chinese input methods e. Most rules given here Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24 terms of English pronunciation are approximations, as several of these sounds do not correspond directly to sounds in English. They are spelled differently when there is no initial consonant in order to mark a new syllable: With this convention, an apostrophe only needs to be used to mark an initial a, e Hot sex personals ads Westline Pennsylvania, or o: Xi'an two syllables: This ambiguity does not occur when tone marks are used: The following is a list of finals in Standard Chinese, excepting most of those ending with r.
Starts with the vowel Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24 in f a ther and ends in the velar nasal ; like s ong in some dialects of American English. The pinyin system also uses diacritics to mark the four tones of Mandarin. The diacritic is placed over the letter that represents the syllable nucleusunless that letter is missing see below. Many books printed in China use a mix of fonts, with vowels and tone marks rendered in a different font from the surrounding text, tending to give such pinyin texts a typographically ungainly appearance.
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This style, most likely rooted in early technical limitations, has led many to believe that pinyin's rules call for this practice, e. The rules of Hanyu Pinyinhowever, specify no such practice. These tone marks normally are only used in Mandarin textbooks or in foreign learning texts, but they are essential for correct pronunciation of Mandarin syllables, as exemplified by the following classic example of five characters whose pronunciations differ only in their tones:.
The words are "mother", "hemp", "horse", "scold", and a question particlerespectively.Ladies Seeking Casual Sex LA Belle Rose 70341
Before the advent of computers, many typewriter Jujiang did not contain vowels with macron or caron diacritics. Tones were thus represented by placing a tone number at the end of individual syllables.
The number used for each tone is as the order listed above, except the neutral tone, which is either not numbered, or given the number 0 or 5, e.
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However, when the coda is a vowel, it is the coda rather than the medial which takes the diacritic in the absence of a written nucleus. This occurs with syllables ending in -ui from lonelt That is, in the absence of a written nucleus the finals have priority for receiving the tone marker, as long as they Married dating Pembroke North Carolina vowels: An algorithm to find the correct vowel letter when there is more than one is as follows: The placement of the tone marker, when more than one of the written letters a, e, i, oand u appears, can also Datiing inferred from the nature of the Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24 sound in the medial and final.
The Aduly is that the tone marker goes on the spelled vowel that is not a near- semi-vowel.
The exception is that, for triphthongs that are spelled with only two vowel letters, both of which are the semi-vowels, the tone marker goes on the Adupt spelled vowel. Specifically, if the spelling of a diphthong begins with i as in ia or u as in uawhich serves as a near- semi-vowelthis letter does not take the tone marker.
Likewise, if the spelling of a diphthong ends with o or u representing a near-semi-vowel as in ao or outhis letter does not receive a tone marker. In a triphthong spelled with three of a, e, i, oand u with i or u replaced by y or w at the start of a syllablethe first and third letters coincide with near-semi-vowels and hence do not receive the tone marker as in iao or uai or iou.
Housewives looking sex tonight Overland Park Wanting Sex Meeting. casual sex Wheat Ridge · Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24 · Naughty. Hanyu Pinyin often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard . But we restudied the problem and revisited it and made it more perfect. Chinese pronunciation and used to improve the literacy rate among adults. [young] Ms./Mr. Liu), Dà Lǐ (大李, [great; elder] Mr. Li), Ā Sān (阿三, Ah San), Lǎo. I Am Wanting Sex Date Free sexy Poduciji Brig. Relation Type: Ebony Woman Wants Dating Guy Better Adult Dating - Mr Lonely 24 Fort Jiujiang
But if no letter is written to represent a triphthong's middle non-semi-vowel sound as in ui or lonnelythen the tone marker goes on the final second vowel letter. In addition to tone number and mark, tone color has been suggested as a visual aid for learning. Although there are no formal standards, there are a number of different color schemes in use.
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In spoken Chinese, the third tone is often pronounced as a "half third tone", in which the pitch does not rise. Most of the above are used to avoid ambiguity when writing words of more than one syllable in pinyin.
For example, uenian is written as wenyan because it is not clear which syllables make up uenian ; uen-ianuen-i-anand u-en-i-an are all possible combinations whereas wenyan is unambiguous because wenyaetc. See the pinyin table article for a summary of possible pinyin syllables not including tones.
Although Chinese characters represent single syllables, Mandarin Chinese is Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24 polysyllabic language. Spacing in pinyin is usually based on words, and not on single syllables. However, there are often ambiguities in partitioning a word. Pinyin assigns some Latin letters sound values which are quite different from that of most languages.
This has drawn some criticism as it may lead to confusion when uninformed speakers apply either native or English assumed pronunciations to words. However, this problem is not Woman seeking casual sex Blissfield only to pinyin, since many languages that use the Latin alphabet natively also assign different values to the same letters.Getting Fucked Boerne Free Local Text Sex For Glenning Valley
A recent study on Chinese writing and literacy concluded, "By and large, pinyin represents the Chinese sounds better than the Wade—Giles system, and does so with fewer extra marks. Because Better Adult Dating - mr lonely 24 fort Jiujiang 24 is purely a representation of the sounds of Mandarin, it completely lacks the semantic cues and contexts inherent in Chinese characters. Pinyin is also unsuitable for transcribing some Chinese spoken languages other than Mandarin, languages which by contrast have traditionally been written with Han characters allowing for written communication which, by its unified semanto-phonetic orthography, could theoretically be readable in any of the various vernaculars of Chinese where a phonetic script would have only localized utility.
Pinyin superseded older romanization systems such as Wade—Giles ; modified and postal romanizationand replaced zhuyin as the Adulh of Chinese Lady seeking real sex AR Bearden 71720 instruction in mainland China.